24 Containers library [containers]

24.7 Views [views]

24.7.2 Contiguous access [views.contiguous] Class template span [views.span] Overview [span.overview]

A span is a view over a contiguous sequence of objects, the storage of which is owned by some other object.
All member functions of span have constant time complexity.
namespace std { template<class ElementType, size_t Extent = dynamic_extent> class span { public: // constants and types using element_type = ElementType; using value_type = remove_cv_t<ElementType>; using size_type = size_t; using difference_type = ptrdiff_t; using pointer = element_type*; using const_pointer = const element_type*; using reference = element_type&; using const_reference = const element_type&; using iterator = implementation-defined; // see [span.iterators] using const_iterator = std::const_iterator<iterator>; using reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<iterator>; using const_reverse_iterator = std::const_iterator<reverse_iterator>; static constexpr size_type extent = Extent; // [span.cons], constructors, copy, and assignment constexpr span() noexcept; template<class It> constexpr explicit(extent != dynamic_extent) span(It first, size_type count); template<class It, class End> constexpr explicit(extent != dynamic_extent) span(It first, End last); template<size_t N> constexpr span(type_identity_t<element_type> (&arr)[N]) noexcept; template<class T, size_t N> constexpr span(array<T, N>& arr) noexcept; template<class T, size_t N> constexpr span(const array<T, N>& arr) noexcept; template<class R> constexpr explicit(extent != dynamic_extent) span(R&& r); constexpr explicit(extent != dynamic_extent) span(std::initializer_list<value_type> il); constexpr span(const span& other) noexcept = default; template<class OtherElementType, size_t OtherExtent> constexpr explicit(see below) span(const span<OtherElementType, OtherExtent>& s) noexcept; constexpr span& operator=(const span& other) noexcept = default; // [span.sub], subviews template<size_t Count> constexpr span<element_type, Count> first() const; template<size_t Count> constexpr span<element_type, Count> last() const; template<size_t Offset, size_t Count = dynamic_extent> constexpr span<element_type, see below> subspan() const; constexpr span<element_type, dynamic_extent> first(size_type count) const; constexpr span<element_type, dynamic_extent> last(size_type count) const; constexpr span<element_type, dynamic_extent> subspan( size_type offset, size_type count = dynamic_extent) const; // [span.obs], observers constexpr size_type size() const noexcept; constexpr size_type size_bytes() const noexcept; [[nodiscard]] constexpr bool empty() const noexcept; // [span.elem], element access constexpr reference operator[](size_type idx) const; constexpr reference at(size_type idx) const; // freestanding-deleted constexpr reference front() const; constexpr reference back() const; constexpr pointer data() const noexcept; // [span.iterators], iterator support constexpr iterator begin() const noexcept; constexpr iterator end() const noexcept; constexpr const_iterator cbegin() const noexcept { return begin(); } constexpr const_iterator cend() const noexcept { return end(); } constexpr reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept; constexpr reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept { return rbegin(); } constexpr const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept { return rend(); } private: pointer data_; // exposition only size_type size_; // exposition only }; template<class It, class EndOrSize> span(It, EndOrSize) -> span<remove_reference_t<iter_reference_t<It>>, maybe-static-ext<EndOrSize>>; template<class T, size_t N> span(T (&)[N]) -> span<T, N>; template<class T, size_t N> span(array<T, N>&) -> span<T, N>; template<class T, size_t N> span(const array<T, N>&) -> span<const T, N>; template<class R> span(R&&) -> span<remove_reference_t<ranges::range_reference_t<R>>>; }
span<ElementType, Extent> is a trivially copyable type ([basic.types.general]).
ElementType is required to be a complete object type that is not an abstract class type.
For a span s, any operation that invalidates a pointer in the range [s.data(), s.data() + s.size()) invalidates pointers, iterators, and references to elements of s.